5 Steps to prevent Heart Disease

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Game of Thrones Day 13

Game of Thrones Day 13 of bingeing 7 seasons 

Season Seven

Randal Tarly (father of Samwell) was the only Lord to beat Robert Baratheon in battle.  Cercei is trying to recruit Lord Tarly.

Samwell Tarly not only has killed a White Walker and a Thenn in battle,  he has cured a man of Greyscale as an apprentice Maester.
The he offered his patient a bottle of rum to help his with the pain as Sam cut the scales off.
Earlier the Hound refused rum on the road.  It said rum was too sweet.

Dany has 3 allies already. All women. 
Yara Greyjoy- Iron Islands
Ellaria Sand-Martell, Dorne
Oleanna Tyrell- House Tyrell

Castle Dragonstone sits on a mountain of dragonstone. Who knew?  No one apparently.
 Jon Stone learned from Samwell while studying at the Citadel.  
He tells Dany who doesn't believe in White Walkers or the Army of the Dead.

A good turn of events for Queen Cercei.
Her navy beat the other Navy.
Both Iron Born Navies.
Uncle of Theon was the victor.

Season 7  Disc TWO

Gendry (a Blacksmith and one of the last surviving bastards of King Robert Baratheon) asks
"How can we be on the same side?"
Answer from Jon Snow
"We're all breathing"

"That man was killed seven times and he's not whinging.
So what you whinging about."
"I'm not whinging"
"Your lips are moving and you're complaining about something. That's whinging.
This one's been killed six times.  You don't hear him bitching about it."

When a Dragon dies North of the Wall does he become part of the Dead Army?

Fantastic scene at the end of Disc 2

Summit at Dragon Pit 
One of the Army of the Dead is brought to Cercei to show her the threat from North of the War. 

Lord Varys said this man was the most dangerous man in the empire.  He was executed by Arya.

Spoiler Alert 
Jon Snow is not the bastard son of John Stark. 
Jon Snow is the son of Rhaegar Targaryen and Lyanna Stark (sister to John Stark)
Robert Baretheron started the rebellion because he said Rhaegar raped Lyanna.
Turns out that rebellion was based on a lie as Lyanna had a private marriage ceremony with Rhaegar. 
Jon Snow's real name at birth was Aegon Targaryen.  In the tower where he was born,  Lyanna asked her brother John Stark to protect her son.  Lyanna died in childbirth and John Stark brought the baby home as his bastard named Jon Snow. 

End of Season 7

The Wall is Down!

Game of Thrones 12.1

 Season 7 

The 12th night of bingeing I finally get to the last season in my Blu-Ray box set

I can see the light at the end of the tunnel.  I should finish the task tomorrow or Sunday.  

It has been a very enjoyable and worthwhile task,  similar to people watching all the March Madness basketball games.  No regrets.  

Disc one

Revenge of the Red Wedding.
"Leave one wolf alive and the sheep are never safe"

I can't believe I forgot about this.  
Arya says to a servant:
"When people ask you what happened here
tell them the North remembers.
Tell them Winter came for House Frey."

At one point two of the Stark boys were thought to have been killed by Theon Greyjoy. Bran and 
Jon Snow had been assassinated. 
John Stark had been killed at the Red Wedding. 
The mother of five Starks died at the Red Wedding

The only living Stark was the red headed Sansa Stark. 

Arya was missing. 

Arya shows up. Bran shows up. 

Which Stark is next?

Someone asks the Hound, why are you always in such a foul mood. 
The Hound replies: Experience

Dany arrives at ancestral home: DRAGONSTONE.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Games of Thrones Day 12

Game of Thrones   

Day 12 of bingeing the first seven seasons GOT

Season Six

"There are two pillars to the seven kingdoms.
The State and the church are the two pillars that hold civilization together."  King Joffrey Stark.

This portends a thrilling conclusion to this thread. 

The King Slayer has a conversation with Edmure Tully his prisoner (the brother of Lady Cat Stark).  Lannister says your sister (Cat) would do anything to save their children) Turn cities to ash, start wars.  Lannister says he would do anything for his love of Cersei.

"Finally a girl is no one"
"I am Arya Stark and I am going home"

Season Six    Disc 4

Dragons to the rescue for Dany against Naval attack. Beautiful Navy and Air Force battle scenes.

Four people are in the room.  Two are siblings.  They agree that all three of their fathers were terrible people.  The Dads left the world in a worst position because of their actions.  Who are the four people

One of the greatest "you had it coming" scenes  at end of Disc 4.

Then a mind blowing ending to the church vs. state issue.  Similar to the ending of The Godfather one. 

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Game of Thrones Day 11

Game of Thrones Day 11. 

Continue Season  Six Disc 1
A Stark is resurrected by the Red Queen, Priest of Lord of Light.  She asks what did you see while you were dead?  Response "nothing"

Season Six Disc 2

Lady Sansa Stark reunites with Jon Snow.  

Once again DANY shows her incredible strength and that she is the Mother of Dragons against incredible odds.  Wonderful scene at end of Disc.

Season Six Disc 3

Who made the white walkers? Answer: The Children of the forrest.  They killed men with dragonglass when men were their enemies. 

We learned how Hodor gets his name.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Game of Thrones Day 10

Game of Thrones Day 10 bingeing

Season 6

Spoiler  Alert.

The assassination of JS remind me of Julius Caesar when the young boy knifes him also. 
Et tu Olly?
 It also reminds me of the Iron Islands saying "What is dead cannot die" 

Can anyone escape Ramsey Bolton.  Yes when Lady Brienne comes to the rescue.

Bran Stark can see into the past and reveals many secrets. 

Reviews of Chronic Disease of Obesity

Review # One

"Diet medications...should be continued for life to maintain weight loss with less hunger, allowing you to tolerate lower calories."

The author’s personal health history is used to validate his discoveries as a doctor dealing with diabetic patients unable to further reduce their weight. He explains the Sponge theory as it affects fat cells that remain after major weight loss. Since fat cells only shrink and never die, they develop low leptin levels which trigger the brain of impending starvation. Then the stomach secretes a peptide—ghrelin—to stimulate appetite and causes any diet to become unsustainable. Edwards’ Sponge theory explains why the “reduced obese” plateau at higher and higher weights. 
Edwards has successfully used a combination of diabetic and diet medications to stop this yoyo effect. The treatment begins with losing weight by eating a high fat, low carbohydrate diet which can even include alcohol. Next, he suggests substituting medications, such as using Invokana to replace insulin, known to make a patient hungry. He then recommends specific doctor-prescribed and monitored combinations with explanations of why each works best to interrupt the harmful sequence of yoyo dieting. 
This book combines a personal health memoir with quotes from a collection of medical articles. Edwards passionately explains the science behind obesity and his recommended solutions. These explanations simplify the medical information contained so that patients can easily discuss treatments with their doctors. While the author tells the number of calories consumed on various high fat, low carb diets, a welcome addition would be to know which foods and vitamins were included. Only dietetic soda, known to cause weight gain, is mentioned. The glossary at the end of this 70-page book should prove useful to the reduced obese or a family member. Photographs helpfully document episodes of the author’s weight gain and loss, from youth through recent days.

Review # 2

Title: The Chronic Disease of ObesitySubtitle: How Sponge Syndrome Causes Repeated Weight GainAuthor: Brian Scott Edwards, MD, FNLAPublisher: iUniverseISBN: 978-1-5320-6055-7Pages: 120Genre: Non-Fiction, MedicalReviewed by: Beth Adams
Pacific Book Review
Author Dr. Brian Scott Edwards is Board Certified by the American Board of Obesity Medicine and what makes his book, The Chronic Disease of Obesity, so unique Dr. Edwards is also a patient of his own practice. This allows for his work to be personalized in a manner which unabashedly recounts many of his own successes and failures in maintaining a body mass index at various levels within the obesity category. With an estimated 400 million people falling within the obese category, everyone is familiar with the physical appearances of the various conditions plaguing the health of our population. If this condition is not your personal concern, certainly you know many of your friends and family who are dealing with maintaining a healthy weight or in the process of a weight loss programThe Chronic Disease of Obesity is written at a very high level of nomenclature, vernacular, medical terms and acronyms such that it is not necessarily intended for the lay reader who may not have knowledge on the hierarchy of conditions causing weight gain and customary procedures dealing with weight loss. Yet for those with a basic understanding of the diseases of obesity, diabetes, HDLc factors and the various relationships of appetite suppression drugs, insulin and blood sugar
control substances, plus a foundation of diet and exercise, the information within this book is invaluable.
The Chronic Disease of Obesity begins with a series of photographs chronicling Dr. Edwards body shape; beginning at his early age of 7, through schooling, and continued for over 6 decades of his life illustrating his physical shape along with details of weight, waist, BMI and other information. His dissertation on the various drugs, programs, dietary concerns and reinstating the need to exercise begins to dominate his findings in an orderly, professional and highly specialized sequence of explanations offering fascinating relationships of how the body works. It is beyond the scope of this review to summarize his findings. Dr. Edwards’ entire book is a summary of his experiences, epiphanies and conclusions on dietary programs, drug therapies, along with the side- effects and mental conditions woven through each of the processes. Because the body does not loose fat cells which have been “shrunk” due to dieting, the “Yo-Yo” effect is a constant threat to regain weight if the person does not stick to the monitoring of their weight for their entire life. Each person will lose weight until a plateau is reached. Muscle loss needs to be paid very close attention to, and repetition doing sets with light weights will benefit people as they age.
Citing nearly 100 papers from other research studies and related references, Dr. Edwards presents clear and unambiguous conclusions which will greatly benefit anyone dealing with obesity. Simply stated, adhering to a reasonable diet such as the Atkin’s diet (lots of protein with no carbs, and an allowance 2 ounces of alcohol per day) plus a 20-minute walk each day are the most important factors for improving one’s health. Included in The Chronic Disease of Obesity are a glossary, summary of terms and an index, making the book an important tool which can be used by a wide variety of readers dealing with obesity to gain expert information. I highly recommend this book and I recommend that you buy copies for your physicians and friends. There's no such thing as too much good information. It can save your life!

Review 3 

The Chronic Disease of Obesity: How Sponge Syndrome Causes Repeated Weight GainBrian Scott Edwards, MD, FNLA
iUniverse, 70 pages, (paperback) $17.99, 978-1-5320-6055-7

(Reviewed: March 2019)
Dr. Brian Scott Edwards has personally struggled with obesity and also seen its impact on patients. In The Chronic Disease of Obesity, he alternates between telling his own story and presenting scientific facts and strategies regarding obesity and weight loss.
Edwards admits that his plan is unconventional, but under this approach, he lost and has kept off 80 pounds “after giving up on extreme exercise and switching to an Atkins adlibitum (eating until full) diet, but more importantly by taking multiple diet medications.”
Edwards advises readers to choose an eating plan or program (he recommends specific books, including The New Atkins for a New YouThe South Beach Diet, and The Change Your Biology Diet), take a 20-minute walk every day, then stay on diet medications, perhaps for life. He offers specifics on what medications he took and thosehe’s prescribed for patients. The book includes 67 endnotes.
Unfortunately, the volume isn’t structured cohesively. For example, he places a chapterafter his endnotes. The front of the book includes a list of his weight from when he was age 9 to 2018, followed by a photo history of his life. These would have been more appropriate in an appendix at the back of the book. There are also odd omissions, such as mentioning the obesity drug he’s taking, but not including it in his listing of obesity drugs and their pros and cons.
Although the author includes a glossary of technical and medical terms, it can be more puzzling than edifying, as when he defines “Leptin Threshold” and “Leptin Resistance,”but fails to identify exactly what a leptin is.
Such issues are distracting and make for a sometimes-frustrating read. Despite this, the book presents some interesting ideas (why not try obesity drugs before bariatric surgery?). Those who suffer from chronic obesity and are willing to overlook the organization problems might find some new ideas and helpful information here.
Also available as an ebook.


Radio host: Jay W Barker link via dropbox


KINDLE $3.03. 
120 pages.  Short but with a great deal of scientific information I learned while studying for the boards in Obesity

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Game of Throne DAY 9

Game of Thrones    DAY 9

This is my ninth straight day of bingeing the first seven seasons of GOT.  

Season 5

Where is the Citadel that trains all the Maesters?
OldTown. One of the most prosperous cities in Westeros.  
Samwell wants to become a Maester.

Jorah Mormont and Tyrion Lannister sail through  the ruined city of Valyria via the Smoking Sea. 
Volcanic eruptions laid waste to the Valyrian Empire and became known as the DOOM of Valyria.  The is where the Stone Men are free to roam.  Don't let them touch you as it will give you Greyscale.
For 1,000 years the Valyrians were the best at everything.  The knowledge how to build their great cities was lost. 

Season five   Disc 3

"And now his watch has ended".
There is only one Targaryen left in the world. 

The evacuation of Hardhome North of the Wall.   I remember this battle well.  After Samwell, now Jon Snow becomes the second human to kill a White Walker, not with dragon glass but with his Valerian sword?

Season 5 Disc 4 Episodes 9 and 10

Dragon saves Dany from assassination 

Arya goes blind.

Cersei walk of atonement naked through town.

Only 2 Starks left or are there?

Monday, March 25, 2019

Game of Thrones Day 8

Game of Thrones Day 8 of binge watching. 

Season Five Disc One

We meet the Sparrows for the first time. 
They find peace in the light of the Seven.
Ominous for his piety.

Khalessi loses control of her dragons.
At the end of Disc one, the largest dragon comes back to see her again.  The other two dragons are still locked in the dungeon. 

Season 5 Disc Two

Valar Dohaeris: All men must serve. 

Arya finally gets into the House of Black and White in Braavos only to end up sweeping the floors.  She wants to become a faceless man.
A girl must become no one.  This is a new twist to the story that is fascinating.

Margaery Tyrell has just married her third King.  She and the Kings mothers, Cersei Lannister have an epic conversation the day after the wedding.  Cersei has certainly met her match in the new daughter in law Margaery.  Dialogue is so well done.  So many layers of meaning

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Game of Thrones day 7

 Game of Thrones Day 7

Much of the action takes place in The Vale at the castle Eryie. 
This castle has not been taken by enemies for a thousand years as it is on a high mountaintop.
The Moon door is a unique aspect of this castle. 

Man mountain gets into a contest to see if the dwarf is guilty of his crime in trial by combat. 

Season 4 Disc 3

Episode NINE

The Outlings attack the wall and Castle Black from the North with Giant Mammoths and Giants  and from the South with Ygritte
This is one of the great battles in Game of Thrones

Ygritte says to Jon Snow for the last time:
"You know nothing Jon Snow"

The day after they battle there is a big surprise that I had completely forgotten about.  The Calvary arrives.

Episode 10

Bran Stark finally meets the 3 eyed raven under the great red tree of North of the Wall.
A big new development.

Lady Brienne vs. the Hound.  A little different from the book I believe but great fight scene.

The internecine intrigue of the a Lannister's comes to an end with a crossbow and an escape. 

Arya Stark sails to her destiny in Bravaros.  A new chapter of growth for a main character

Bioelectric comparisons over time on LCHF & in ketosis



Day of Colonoscopy after 31 hour fast

Three below
I pulled up an earlier time I was 211 lb without colon prep

Four below

Before and after 35 day Oceania cruise

                                                                 Five below

It's curious I lost a pound after the  34d cruise 
and a month in Hawaii

Six below

Last time I hit 200 pounds was 11-28-17
I gained 12 pounds of fat by 2-13-19
I was on #LCHF and in nutritional ketosis during that time

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Games of Thrones Day 6

Games of Thrones Day 6

Season 3 Episode 10

There is a New Warden of the North.

And his prisoner is named Reek.  
A terrible turn of fortune for a man who lost his "north moral compass"

Samwell meets Bran Stark, the cripple. Bran needs Samwell's help to get him north of the wall to save the south from the White walkers and their Army of Dead 

Lord Tyrion: "Its not easy to be drunk all the time. Everyone would do it if it was."  Said to POD when Pod could not keep up with Tyrion's drinking.

Season 4 Disc one

Arya Stark and the Hound (Sandor Clebane)
get in a great fight scene in a Pub. 
Arya gets her Needle back.

I completely forgot about the The Thenns of heNorth. A brutal group the free folk that are cannibals. 

Medieval Castle internecine Intrigue is showed at it's height in this episode of Joffrey Stark's wedding with a much earned ending.  The mystery is who did it?

Season 4  Disc 2 

We find out how new White walkers are recruited or made They steal babies and then do some White walker magic. 

A new boy King is crowned. 

Season 4 Disc 3

Bravos, home of the Iron Bank. 
It has a huge towering landmark called the Titan of Bravos.

Trial by combat has been used by Tyrion twice in the show.  The first time in Vale with his sword sell and later when he is accused of killing his nephew by a Prince from Dorne.  

Friday, March 22, 2019

Game of Thrones Day 5

Games of Thrones Day 5

Season 3 Disc Two

Shocking and surprising amputation of a hand occurs.

It is a major change in the narrative.

"There is a spider in the garden." The lady asks him, after he flirts with her: "What happens when the non-bumps up against the decrepit. Ah a question for the philosophers."

Who can that be referring to?  He is a major character in the story.

For revenge he has held captive a sorcerer that did him wrong when he was a boy in a box.

It is the growth of characters in their abilities that makes this story great.  3 Young women and a dwarf change the history.

Season 3 DISC 3 Blu-ray

The Hound continues to give us great fight scenes, even against a fiery sword.  The Hound is deathly afraid of fire. 

"Why are you still dressed? 
You know nothing John Snow." 
 Love scene by the pond and waterfalls in a cave North of the Wall.

Season 3 DISC four

Who is more evil?
The Blonde Baratheon king or Ramsey Bolton (Rosse's son) ?
One is a teenage sadistic narcissist and the other is a genius at being evil.

Samwell Tarly is the first on the series to kill a white walker.  He does it with dragon glass knife. 

Jon Snow had killed a walking dead human with fire.  

The Red Wedding is the most shockingly violent and dramatic scene in the whole series.
Even Vice President Gore referred to it in an interview with Chris Hayes on MSNBC.

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Game of Thrones Day 4.0

Game of Thrones Day 4

Season 2 

Episodes 8,9,10

North of the Wall Samwell finds a stash of dragon glass.  A very important discovery

The invasion of Kings Landing is a great naval battle and shore invasion of the Red Keep.  Worth seeing again and again.  This is probably the great scene of season 2.

Episode 10

"Valar Morghulis" the man of changing faces tells Arya Stark (it's a password)

It means: "All men must die"

At the end of this episode we see a white walker for the second time? with Samwell in his shadow. 

Season 3 

The Kingslayer and Lady Briene are caught under Lord Bolton's banner. 
Lord Bolton's son has also captured Theon Greyjoy.  
This is the basis of a great deal of pain and suffering to come. 

Wednesday, March 20, 2019

Games of Thrones day 3.1


I have started season 2 after finishing season one of Game of Thrones this AM

My new favorite character is Davos Seaworth.  This is a great actor. He serves Stannis, the brother in line to be King.

New saying: "The night is dark and full of terrors." said in Dragonstone, an Island Fortress.

We meet a very interesting new character.

The man who can change his face, a member of an assassin religion.

Also we see the Iron Island Kingdom for the first time.  Ruled by Greyjoys.

"What is dead cannot die."

On DISC 2 Blu-ray we meet another great character.  The warrior Lady Brienne.  She says she is no lady.

The most beautiful woman on the series is Queen Cersei Lena Henley link

Next episode brings us to the Riverlands ruled by the Tully's.

We are shown the fourth victory of the King of the North which takes place in the center of Westeros and is fertile land.

After the battle talking about the prisoners they have taken.

"A naked man has few secrets a flayed man has none"

After thinking about this quote I think it means after torturing with flaying of the skin the prisoner
gives up all his secrets

The Ghost of Harrenhal.

A  castle ruined by the fires of the Dragons.

The Stormlands

A region between Kings Landing and the Sea of Dorne, defined by it's raging tempests and warrior culture.
This is where one King brother kills another even though surrounded by his army with his Bodyguard Briene in the same room.

3rd Disc Season 2

The Assassination of the King is quite intense.

The most interesting scenes of Game of Thrones occur north of the wall


  • The glacier at Snæfellsjökull, and also at the glacier of Svínafellsjökull in Smyrlabjörg and the hills of Höfðabrekkuheiði (near Vík í Mýrdal) – used to represent the Fist of the First Men, as well as the harsh frozen mounts of the Frostfangs in Season 2.[30]

One of the best romances on TV is Jon Snow and wildlings red head Ygritte

"You know nothing Jon Snow"

Game of Thrones Day 3

I am on the last episode of Season One of Game of Thrones.

I am not bored at all by watching Season one again.

It's nice to be retired to have the time.

The most amazing scene of season one is at its end.

It elevates the TV series Game of Thrones to a whole new level.

In the subsequent 6 seasons it never disappoints and has ever greater scenes. 


It was big disappointment when Jon Snow died.
 I am at the part where Jon Snow is riding away from serving on the Wall
after his father is beheaded.
His three friends ride after him and convince him to return.
Thats when I realized why the writer's wrote in Jon Snow's death.
That way Jon was released his from his vows to the Wall.

May You Live as Long as Moses

I wrote this chapter in The Tubby Theory of Topeka in 2009.

Recently I saw this new piece.

"It is estimated that there are between 150 and 600 living people who have reached the age of 110." 

People live to 116 years old link

I had 70% medicare practice.  I was board certified in geriatrics.  I seemed clear to me I should give the elderly treatment for high cholesterol 10 years ago.

Tuesday, March 19, 2019

Game of Thrones day 2

Interesting details I now pick up on this 3rd watching.

It took a month for King Baratheon's party to go from King's landing (500,000 people)  to House Stark in Winterfell

In the first season we meet two characters that are not treated well by their families only to become the major characters in the last 8th season.

We also meet the main enemy THE WHITE WALKERS

"If you play the Game of Thrones, you either win or you die there is no middle ground."  Lena Headey/Cersei Lannister  to Sean Bean/Eddard "Ned" Stark

I forgot how much goes on in the first season .  It is really great.

If you start watching the first season of Game of Thrones learn the names of the Seven Kingdoms first.
1-The North(home to Winterfell),
2- The Vale (home to The Eyrie),
3- The Stormlands,
4- The Reach,
5- The Westerlands
7- Dorne

This TV series is very complicated.  
I think making some notes will enhance enjoyment of this great show. 

The great characters in this TV series are what really make it great.

Samwell of the wall friend to Jon Snow.

Bronn of the Blackwater, bodyguard toTyrion Lannister (the imp)

Monday, March 18, 2019

Getting ready for finale of Game of Thrones. #1

The finale of Game of Thrones is coming.
I have read the book and I have seen all seven seasons.

My wife is going to a spa for a week with her daughter.

I thought I would pass the week bingeing on a Blu-ray box set of the first seven seasons.

I started the first season tonight.

The Blu-ray quality is excellent. Of course subtitle and links to characters, location and history.

I have a much better understanding of this episode now that I know the rest of the story.

I am taking my time with watching as I check the notes on the link pages.

I recently binged all three seasons of the TV series Jack Taylor with Iain Glen.  He is Lord Monmouth in Game of Thrones.

Glen's TV series is set in Galway, Ireland.  It's wonderful.  I learned from notes tonight that much of the Northland of Game of Thrones was filmed in Ireland. 

Friday, March 15, 2019

FASTING data with sequential 4 point Bioelectrical Impedance Data scale

I have DM type 2 since 2009.
I have been on Low carbohydrate high fat diet since 2011.

I don't fast routinely, I did it this time to prep for colonoscopy.

There is much buzz about fasting but I don't think anyone has posted data
from a four point BIA scale with glucose level and ketone level?

Index card has typo on last line.  Keto is actually 3.9

3/16       Post Colonoscopy               135        1.7      214.3      54.8

 First Lab day before fasting.  Glucose good for me. I usually run 150.

2nd lab after fasting overnight

3rd lab after 15 hours of fasting

4th lab after starting Go-lytely

5th lab before bedtime

6th lab just before colonoscopy

                                         0ne pm 3-14

11:06 PM 3-14

6 AM 3-15  Typo on my index card should be 3.9 keto

Alzheimer's update Lancet Neurology quote

Recent developments in Alzheimer's

"Genetic studies indicate that most of the risk of developing late onset Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of the disease, affecting patients aged 65 years and older, is associated with genes 
1- APOE, 
2-APOJ, and 
 that are mainly expressed by glial cells 
1- astrocytes, 
2-microglia, and 
This insight has moved the focus of research away from neurons and towards glial cells and neuroinflammation.
 Molecular studies in rodent models suggest a direct contribution of astrocytes to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes causing Alzheimer's disease; however, these models might insufficiently mimic the human disease, because rodent astrocytes differ considerably in morphology, functionality, and gene expression. 
In-vivo studies using stem-cell derived human astrocytes are allowing exploration of the human disease and providing insights into the neurotoxic or protective contributions of these cells to the pathogenesis of disease. 
The first attempts to develop astrocytic biomarkers and targeted therapies are emerging.

Where next?

Single-cell transcriptomics allows the fate of individual astrocytes to be followed in situ and provides the granularity needed to describe healthy and pathological cellular states at different stages of Alzheimer's disease. 
Given the differences between human and rodent astroglia, study of human cells in this way will be crucial. 
Although refined single-cell transcriptomic analyses of human post-mortem brains are important for documentation of pathology, they only provide snapshots of a dynamic reality. 
Thus, functional work studying human astrocytes generated from stem cells and exposed to pathological conditions in rodent brain or cell culture are needed to understand the role of these cells in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. 
These studies will lead to novel biomarkers and hopefully a series of new drug targets to tackle this disease.

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Letter to NYT on exercise vs drugs to treat obesity.

"I am Board certified in Obesity Medicine and wrote a book
on the subject of weight loss maintenance.
 The real challenge is to maintain weight loss.
You can't outrun your fork long term after a 10% weight loss
 due to billions of excess fat cells that do not go away after weight loss
 even due to bariatric surgery.
These adipocytes are shrunken with low leptin levels.
I called this the Sponge syndrome.

The first way Leptin prevents starvation is by decreasing metabolism.
This decreases metabolism during exercise by 38%.
 It also reduces resting metabolism which is 70% of bodies metabolism
 that exercise does not affect.

The second part of Leptin's effect
is to stimulate release of Ghrelin (the hunger hormone).
 To maintain weight loss the key is to stay on 1500 calories for the rest of your life.
This how people in the National Weight Control  Registry accomplish it.
Diet drugs fool the brain to decrease the hunger.
 Just as hypertension pills are taken for life,
diet pills need to be taken for life in the reduced obese.
My book:   The Chronic Disease of Obesity published Feb 2018
 discusses the above Sponge Syndrome in detail and
 how to treat it with multiple diets medication. 

 Exercise is for health not to maintain weight loss.
As Gretchen Reynolds book on Exercise states: 20 minute walk a day
 is best bang for buck for health.
 Gina Kolata in Re-thinking Thin wrote about the false hope of diet and exercise."

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Niacin helps control TG and remnants when added to Lipitor 10 mg

Lab from 11-26-2018 while on Enduracin 1,000 mg (nicotinic acid) and Lipitor 10mg

Remnants 22

Lab from 2-28-2019 after being off Enduracin 1,000 mg (nicotinic acid) on Lipitor 10 mg
Triglycerides went from 110 non-fasting to 172
Remnants up from 22 to 34

On 4-2-19 back on Enduracin 1,000 mg, the triglycerides went down to 90 vs 175 off niacin.
Remnants 18 compared to  34 off Niacin (enduracin)

Sunday, March 3, 2019

Orkney Islands, Scotland

I have been to the Orkney Islands twice. 
First time I took a bus tour from Aviemore, Scotland.  We had a beautiful sunny day.  The tour guide said we were very lucky as they only have a couple of days like this. 

The second time I visited via cruise.  It was overcast.  I only visited the capital, Kirkwall, which is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands. 
The town is first mentioned in the Orkneyinga saga in the year 1046.

On my first trip to Orkney on an extensive bus tour of the Island I was very impressed by Skara Brae.
It  is Northern Europe's most complete Neolithic village.  Consisting of eight clustered houses, it was occupied from roughly 3180 BC to about 2500 BC.

Also impressive was the Ring of Brodgar which is a henge and stone circle.

The Ring of Brodgar was thought to be erected between 2500 BC and 2000 BC.